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APIs offered by brokers and data platforms

I’ve been looking for a broker that has an API for index futures and ideally also futures options. I’m looking to use the API to build a customized view of my risk based on balances, positions, and market conditions.
Searching the algotrading sub I found many API-related posts, but then when I actually read them and their comments, I found they’re often lacking in real substance. It turns out many brokers or data services that have APIs don’t actually support index futures and options via the API, and instead they focus on equities, forex, or cypto. So here’s the list of what I’ve found so far. This isn’t a review of these brokers or APIs and note that I have a specific application in mind (index futures and futures options). Perhaps you’re looking for an API for equities, or you just want data and not a broker, in which case there may be a few options. Also, I’m based in the US so I didn’t really look for brokers or platforms outside the US.
If you have experience with these APIs, please chime in with your thoughts. Also, I may have missed some brokers or platforms. If I did or if you see anything that needs correction please let me know.

Platform Notes
ADM Investor Services No API
Ally Invest Does not support futures instruments
Alpaca Only supports US Equities
Alpha Vantage Does not support futures instruments
AMP Broker with a huge number of platforms available including some with APIs
ApexFutures No API
Arcade Trader No API
AvaTrade Does not support futures instruments
Backtrader Not a data feed; otherwise looks cool but also looks like a one-man shop
Cannon Trading Broker with a variety of platforms, some have API access such as TT
Centerpoint No API
Charles Schwab API does not support futures instruments
Cobra No API
Daniels Trading No API
Discount Trading Broker with a variety of platforms including CQG, Rithmic, TT, some with APIs
Edge Clear Broker with a variety of platforms including CQG, Rithmic, TT, some with APIs
Eroom Now part of Dashprime. Offer a variety of APIs including CQG, TT, CBOE's Silexx, and others via FIX.
ETNA Trader Only supports equities, options (including multi-legs), ETFs, Mutual Funds (Forex with cryptocurrencies coming soon)
ETrade API seems robust but OAuth authorization needs to be refreshed via login once per 24 hours
Futures Online No API
Gain Capital Futures API available, based on .NET; unsure if they are open to retail clients
GFF Brokers Broker with a large number of platforms including some with API access
High Ridge Futures Broker with a variety of platforms including CQG, Rithmic, TT, some with APIs
iBroker API available; contact them for more info
IEX Cloud Looks great but does not support futures instruments
Infinity Futures JSON API available; contact them for more info
Interactive Brokers Client Web API looks promising if clunky
Intrinio Supports futures instruments but is expensive
Koyfin No API
Lightspeed C++ API available
marketstack API for equities available. Does not support futures instruments.
Medved Trader Windows app with a streaming API to various data sources and brokers. See comment below about API beta access.
NinjaTrader Does not support futures options
Norgate Data Not a broker; supports futures data for $270/year
Oanda Forex only; API last updated in 2018
Optimus Futures Broker with a large number of available platforms including some with API access
Phillip Capital Broker with a large number of available platforms including some with API access
polygon.io Expensive but looks slick; does not support futures instruments
Quandl API looks solid; $49/monthly for personal use, does not allow distributing or sharing data; not a broker
Quantconnect Does not expose raw data
Quantopian Does not expose raw data
Quantower Software that connects to multiple brokers and data feeds; API to their software via C# interface
Saxo Markets Broker with extensively documented API
Stage 5 Trading API available through Trading Technologies
Straits Financial Broker with several platforms available including some with APIs such as CQG, R
Sweet Futures Broker with a large number of available platforms including some with API access
TastyWorks There's an unofficial Python API
TenQuant.io Does not support futures instruments
ThinkorSwim Does not support futures instruments via the API
Tiingo Free account tier but does not support futures instruments
TradePro Broker with a number of platforms available; unclear if any are available with API access
Tradier Free developer API account for delayed data but does not support futures instruments
TradeStation Nice looking API docs and supports futures instruments; requires opening an account and a minimum balance of $100k and there’s no trial available
TradeFutures4Less Broker with a variety of platforms including CQG, Rithmic, TT, some with APIs
TradingTechnologies API looks robust; pricing starts at $700/month
TradingView Does not expose data API
Tradovate Technologies API exists, documentation unknown; need to talk to their account team
Wedbush Futures Broker with several platforms offered, a few of which have API access
WEX .NET/COM only; pricing not disclosed on website
Xignite Pricing not disclosed on website but they do support futures instruments
Yahoo Finance API Available through RapidAPI or via direct access; but it’s discontinued and unreliable
Zaner Broker with a variety of platforms including CQG, Rithmic, TT, some with APIs

Wow, this list grew longer than I originally thought it would be. If you spot a mistake, please let me know and I’ll correct it.
Edit:
- added Lightspeed API - updated Dashprime to indicate some of the APIs available - added Medved Trader to table - added marketstack to table
submitted by theloniusmunch to thewallstreet [link] [comments]

The Easiest Way To Become A Successful Day Trader| Guy Gentile | Putnam Valley | Online Day Trading for Beginners

The Easiest Way To Become A Successful Day Trader| Guy Gentile | Putnam Valley | Online Day Trading for Beginners
Today everyone wants to become successful and make good money to fulfill their desires. But we all know your 9 to 5 job is a perfect path of successful career like famous business icons like Guy Gentile. You have to take better decision in life at right time. Today Day Trading is the biggest platform to invest and get money in multiple figures. To make a successful carrier in day trading first you have to know the difference between swing trading and day trading. So here Guy Gentile the day trading legend form Putnam Valley New York explains you briefly about day trading and also offers you best online day trading courses.

Guy Gentile
Swing Trading: Swing trading is a style of trading that attempts to capture short- to medium-term gains in a stock (or any financial instrument) over a period of a few days to several weeks. Swing traders primarily use technical analysis to look for trading opportunities.
Day Trading: Day trading is defined as the purchase and sale of a security within a single trading day. It can occur in any marketplace but is most common in the foreign exchange (forex) and stock markets. Day traders are typically well-educated and well-funded. They use high amounts of leverage and short-term trading strategies to capitalize on small price movements in highly liquid stocks or currencies.
As per Guy Gentile tremendous experience Day Trading is better than other trading system and guy is the perfect example for you. Today Guy Gentile living a well comfortable and luxury life like a film star just because of day trading.
Currently Guy Gentile is the famous face of news channels and day trading field. This man always in news due to excellent day trading skills and success stories. In Putnam Valley New York Guy Gentile is the best and legendry day trader all the beginners in this filed seriously followed Guy Gentile blogs to get daily basis updates and tips about Day Trading field.
If anyone looking for best online platform to learn complete day trading then DayTraderPro is the best option for you. This amazing platform launched by Guy Gentile.
submitted by guygentiletrader to u/guygentiletrader [link] [comments]

‘’Pirates’’ will save crypto?

Perhaps, why not! However, what stops crypto from bullish growing? To my mind, the main reasons are not the volatility and lack of clear legal regulation, but the lack of new users (new blood), which creates a ‘’narrow’’ market. Why is this not a PR message? A message that can potentially attract the attention of brand new users who cannot take into account other investment tools (because of their complexity or high entry point or just because of the restrictions of policies of accredited investors).
If you invested in bitcoin (or in another functional cryptocurrency) exactly a year ago, then even now despite the market drop caused by the new “black swan” - a recession against the background of coronavirus, you would get more than 35% growth.
Why do we see that the audience of followers is not updated? Why all the projects are fighting for the same fans who entered the crypto before 2018 and continuing to place media uselessly on the same sites? As we all remember, until 2018, each project had access to 2 billion audience through a whole set of tools from advertising on social networks to context advertising. We used LinkedIn, reddit, twitter and of course, the 2 main tools for attracting traffic (google and Facebook). Each crypto project, using these marketing instruments, brought its advertising messages to a new audience, not only carrying out the KPI of the project, but also fueling up interest in the blockchain as a whole industry; thereby increasing the demand for crypto and its liquidity. Like any new financial instrument, crypto is faced with the resistance of the old financial system:
· misinformation on TV and the mass media (crypto is a lie, crypto is a drug and terrorism)
· pressure from regulators (SEC refused, limited, punished)
· And, of course, a decision that has the most “destructive” effect - a ban on the largest advertising platforms in the world.
Unfortunately, the sweet times before the “ban” can no longer come back. Since January 2018, advertising of blockchain and cryptocurrency projects on most of the platforms in the world and social networks has been prohibited. The first to limit the right to advertise were Google AdWords and DoubleClick, introducing a direct ban on advertising content in terms of cryptocurrencies and related materials. A similar situation with context advertising is in Yandex Direct. Social networks also show unfair attitude to the crypto industry. Nonetheless, the crypto industry is approaching a line that it becomes simply impossible to ignore. After all, no matter how the new model is revolutionary and capable of making the world a better place — it is doomed to die if no one knows about it. Of course, if you have a good marketing agency, and you are a large and successful venture blockchain project (from the top of best and most famous), with all the necessary licenses, you can still compete for banning in fb and google. Moreover, although it takes a long time, I know several projects that now have permission for official advertising. Despite the fact that the largest platforms have banned startup blockchain advertising, there are still ways to promote it.
What should everyone else do? What to do for a new comer that is just entering the market. Or for an old project that failed to get into the top of the most recognizable? ‘’Use your existing inventory’’ - it seems like the most important piece of advice that almost every project follows. Now we see how hundreds of projects are simultaneously placing on the same platforms (crypto news, ICO listings, bloggers), squeezing the last attention and investments from the same target groups. What are the results? They are obvious. Fundraising is falling, the number of new users and investors is not increasing, and liquidity is falling. In addition, for these reasons, in the last year, crypto has finally turned out from an instrument that would destroy the hegemony of big money, into an instrument - not very studied and too volatile.
What to do in order to revive the interest to crypto? Right now, to start to search and apply new traffic tools. Sources that can give huge coverage and this will help attract new users to your project, for whom you can become the first successful investment in the blockchain. What to study from? What and how to apply? The easiest way, as always, is to learn the experience of those who live in the world of advertising restrictions for a very long period. For example - casinos, forex, bookmakers, unlicensed video etc. We analyzed the largest representatives of these advertisers and chose the most effective method of placement, which appeared in the top of all advertisers – pirate sites with unlicensed content. It is also not a secret that many well-known offline and online retailers and not only are not ashamed of advertising on such sites along with advertising of the above-discriminated businesses. In addition, the crypto industry can be considered so far as discriminated in its rights.
What makes pirate sites so attractive? The main sense of advertising on resources with unlicensed content is the incredibly large coverage of the audience at relatively low prices. The largest resources provide 10 million unique visitors every month. The cost differs depending on the format – pre roll, branding, banner, and order of display. Price - from $ 10 for 1 thousand unique views. It is also worth considering the possibility of paying with crypto and a simple workflow, which allows you to make placements for very young and unknown companies. Technically, such platforms can track all interested users, so that later they can activate their attention in other campaigns to optimize marketing and advertising costs, which will allow the advertiser to save the customer’s budget in such a financially turbulent time, while generating even more leads. Indeed, traditional media today are still too expensive and do not have such technical capabilities of their platforms. The millionth audience of pirate resources is explained by the fact that the user loves unlicensed content, and such a user has other interests and hobbies, including the crypto, blockchain, venture projects and much more, which is so discriminated in advertising by official media and social networks. The ethical issue in the modern world of capitalist chaos caused by the global crisis can be left aside, as for marketing strategies, such ‘’pirate’’ resources:
· provide an opportunity to build moderate total project costs
· save on advertising, but do not limit yourself in their use
· as much as possible and as soon as possible can reach your target group and collect leads
· despite of discrimination to the dissemination of information about the crypto and blockchain project, to have workarounds to gather your audience
· not depend constantly on the changing policies of official expensive advertiser's platforms and their instructions
That is precisely what projects need in order to be successful during the limitation and expensive media.
If you are interested in the opportunities described above or you can offer services that will help crypto projects gather more audiences - feel free to write me: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) or in telegram - u/golubev_serge
Sergey Golubev (Сергей Голубев)
EU structural funds, ICO/STO/IEO projects, NGO & investment projects, project management, comprehensive support for business
submitted by Golubyev_Sergiy to content_marketing [link] [comments]

‘’Pirates’’ will save crypto?

Perhaps, why not! However, what stops crypto from bullish growing? To my mind, the main reasons are not the volatility and lack of clear legal regulation, but the lack of new users (new blood), which creates a ‘’narrow’’ market. Why is this not a PR message? A message that can potentially attract the attention of brand new users who cannot take into account other investment tools (because of their complexity or high entry point or just because of the restrictions of policies of accredited investors).
If you invested in bitcoin (or in another functional cryptocurrency) exactly a year ago, then even now despite the market drop caused by the new “black swan” - a recession against the background of coronavirus, you would get more than 35% growth.
Why do we see that the audience of followers is not updated? Why all the projects are fighting for the same fans who entered the crypto before 2018 and continuing to place media uselessly on the same sites? As we all remember, until 2018, each project had access to 2 billion audience through a whole set of tools from advertising on social networks to context advertising. We used LinkedIn, reddit, twitter and of course, the 2 main tools for attracting traffic (google and Facebook). Each crypto project, using these marketing instruments, brought its advertising messages to a new audience, not only carrying out the KPI of the project, but also fueling up interest in the blockchain as a whole industry; thereby increasing the demand for crypto and its liquidity. Like any new financial instrument, crypto is faced with the resistance of the old financial system:
· misinformation on TV and the mass media (crypto is a lie, crypto is a drug and terrorism)
· pressure from regulators (SEC refused, limited, punished)
· And, of course, a decision that has the most “destructive” effect - a ban on the largest advertising platforms in the world.
Unfortunately, the sweet times before the “ban” can no longer come back. Since January 2018, advertising of blockchain and cryptocurrency projects on most of the platforms in the world and social networks has been prohibited. The first to limit the right to advertise were Google AdWords and DoubleClick, introducing a direct ban on advertising content in terms of cryptocurrencies and related materials. A similar situation with context advertising is in Yandex Direct. Social networks also show unfair attitude to the crypto industry. Nonetheless, the crypto industry is approaching a line that it becomes simply impossible to ignore. After all, no matter how the new model is revolutionary and capable of making the world a better place — it is doomed to die if no one knows about it. Of course, if you have a good marketing agency, and you are a large and successful venture blockchain project (from the top of best and most famous), with all the necessary licenses, you can still compete for banning in fb and google. Moreover, although it takes a long time, I know several projects that now have permission for official advertising. Despite the fact that the largest platforms have banned startup blockchain advertising, there are still ways to promote it.
What should everyone else do? What to do for a new comer that is just entering the market. Or for an old project that failed to get into the top of the most recognizable? ‘’Use your existing inventory’’ - it seems like the most important piece of advice that almost every project follows. Now we see how hundreds of projects are simultaneously placing on the same platforms (crypto news, ICO listings, bloggers), squeezing the last attention and investments from the same target groups. What are the results? They are obvious. Fundraising is falling, the number of new users and investors is not increasing, and liquidity is falling. In addition, for these reasons, in the last year, crypto has finally turned out from an instrument that would destroy the hegemony of big money, into an instrument - not very studied and too volatile.
What to do in order to revive the interest to crypto? Right now, to start to search and apply new traffic tools. Sources that can give huge coverage and this will help attract new users to your project, for whom you can become the first successful investment in the blockchain. What to study from? What and how to apply? The easiest way, as always, is to learn the experience of those who live in the world of advertising restrictions for a very long period. For example - casinos, forex, bookmakers, unlicensed video etc. We analyzed the largest representatives of these advertisers and chose the most effective method of placement, which appeared in the top of all advertisers – pirate sites with unlicensed content. It is also not a secret that many well-known offline and online retailers and not only are not ashamed of advertising on such sites along with advertising of the above-discriminated businesses. In addition, the crypto industry can be considered so far as discriminated in its rights.
What makes pirate sites so attractive? The main sense of advertising on resources with unlicensed content is the incredibly large coverage of the audience at relatively low prices. The largest resources provide 10 million unique visitors every month. The cost differs depending on the format – pre roll, branding, banner, and order of display. Price - from $ 10 for 1 thousand unique views. It is also worth considering the possibility of paying with crypto and a simple workflow, which allows you to make placements for very young and unknown companies. Technically, such platforms can track all interested users, so that later they can activate their attention in other campaigns to optimize marketing and advertising costs, which will allow the advertiser to save the customer’s budget in such a financially turbulent time, while generating even more leads. Indeed, traditional media today are still too expensive and do not have such technical capabilities of their platforms. The millionth audience of pirate resources is explained by the fact that the user loves unlicensed content, and such a user has other interests and hobbies, including the crypto, blockchain, venture projects and much more, which is so discriminated in advertising by official media and social networks. The ethical issue in the modern world of capitalist chaos caused by the global crisis can be left aside, as for marketing strategies, such ‘’pirate’’ resources:
· provide an opportunity to build moderate total project costs
· save on advertising, but do not limit yourself in their use
· as much as possible and as soon as possible can reach your target group and collect leads
· despite of discrimination to the dissemination of information about the crypto and blockchain project, to have workarounds to gather your audience
· not depend constantly on the changing policies of official expensive advertiser's platforms and their instructions
That is precisely what projects need in order to be successful during the limitation and expensive media.
If you are interested in the opportunities described above or you can offer services that will help crypto projects gather more audiences - feel free to write me: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) or in telegram - u/golubev_serge
Sergey Golubev (Сергей Голубев)
EU structural funds, ICO/STO/IEO projects, NGO & investment projects, project management, comprehensive support for business
submitted by Golubyev_Sergiy to DigitalMarketing [link] [comments]

‘’Pirates’’ will save crypto?

Perhaps, why not! However, what stops crypto from bullish growing? To my mind, the main reasons are not the volatility and lack of clear legal regulation, but the lack of new users (new blood), which creates a ‘’narrow’’ market. Why is this not a PR message? A message that can potentially attract the attention of brand new users who cannot take into account other investment tools (because of their complexity or high entry point or just because of the restrictions of policies of accredited investors).
If you invested in bitcoin (or in another functional cryptocurrency) exactly a year ago, then even now despite the market drop caused by the new “black swan” - a recession against the background of coronavirus, you would get more than 35% growth.
Why do we see that the audience of followers is not updated? Why all the projects are fighting for the same fans who entered the crypto before 2018 and continuing to place media uselessly on the same sites? As we all remember, until 2018, each project had access to 2 billion audience through a whole set of tools from advertising on social networks to context advertising. We used LinkedIn, reddit, twitter and of course, the 2 main tools for attracting traffic (google and Facebook). Each crypto project, using these marketing instruments, brought its advertising messages to a new audience, not only carrying out the KPI of the project, but also fueling up interest in the blockchain as a whole industry; thereby increasing the demand for crypto and its liquidity. Like any new financial instrument, crypto is faced with the resistance of the old financial system:
· misinformation on TV and the mass media (crypto is a lie, crypto is a drug and terrorism)
· pressure from regulators (SEC refused, limited, punished)
· And, of course, a decision that has the most “destructive” effect - a ban on the largest advertising platforms in the world.
Unfortunately, the sweet times before the “ban” can no longer come back. Since January 2018, advertising of blockchain and cryptocurrency projects on most of the platforms in the world and social networks has been prohibited. The first to limit the right to advertise were Google AdWords and DoubleClick, introducing a direct ban on advertising content in terms of cryptocurrencies and related materials. A similar situation with context advertising is in Yandex Direct. Social networks also show unfair attitude to the crypto industry. Nonetheless, the crypto industry is approaching a line that it becomes simply impossible to ignore. After all, no matter how the new model is revolutionary and capable of making the world a better place — it is doomed to die if no one knows about it. Of course, if you have a good marketing agency, and you are a large and successful venture blockchain project (from the top of best and most famous), with all the necessary licenses, you can still compete for banning in fb and google. Moreover, although it takes a long time, I know several projects that now have permission for official advertising. Despite the fact that the largest platforms have banned startup blockchain advertising, there are still ways to promote it.
What should everyone else do? What to do for a new comer that is just entering the market. Or for an old project that failed to get into the top of the most recognizable? ‘’Use your existing inventory’’ - it seems like the most important piece of advice that almost every project follows. Now we see how hundreds of projects are simultaneously placing on the same platforms (crypto news, ICO listings, bloggers), squeezing the last attention and investments from the same target groups. What are the results? They are obvious. Fundraising is falling, the number of new users and investors is not increasing, and liquidity is falling. In addition, for these reasons, in the last year, crypto has finally turned out from an instrument that would destroy the hegemony of big money, into an instrument - not very studied and too volatile.
What to do in order to revive the interest to crypto? Right now, to start to search and apply new traffic tools. Sources that can give huge coverage and this will help attract new users to your project, for whom you can become the first successful investment in the blockchain. What to study from? What and how to apply? The easiest way, as always, is to learn the experience of those who live in the world of advertising restrictions for a very long period. For example - casinos, forex, bookmakers, unlicensed video etc. We analyzed the largest representatives of these advertisers and chose the most effective method of placement, which appeared in the top of all advertisers – pirate sites with unlicensed content. It is also not a secret that many well-known offline and online retailers and not only are not ashamed of advertising on such sites along with advertising of the above-discriminated businesses. In addition, the crypto industry can be considered so far as discriminated in its rights.
What makes pirate sites so attractive? The main sense of advertising on resources with unlicensed content is the incredibly large coverage of the audience at relatively low prices. The largest resources provide 10 million unique visitors every month. The cost differs depending on the format – pre roll, branding, banner, and order of display. Price - from $ 10 for 1 thousand unique views. It is also worth considering the possibility of paying with crypto and a simple workflow, which allows you to make placements for very young and unknown companies. Technically, such platforms can track all interested users, so that later they can activate their attention in other campaigns to optimize marketing and advertising costs, which will allow the advertiser to save the customer’s budget in such a financially turbulent time, while generating even more leads. Indeed, traditional media today are still too expensive and do not have such technical capabilities of their platforms. The millionth audience of pirate resources is explained by the fact that the user loves unlicensed content, and such a user has other interests and hobbies, including the crypto, blockchain, venture projects and much more, which is so discriminated in advertising by official media and social networks. The ethical issue in the modern world of capitalist chaos caused by the global crisis can be left aside, as for marketing strategies, such ‘’pirate’’ resources:
· provide an opportunity to build moderate total project costs
· save on advertising, but do not limit yourself in their use
· as much as possible and as soon as possible can reach your target group and collect leads
· despite of discrimination to the dissemination of information about the crypto and blockchain project, to have workarounds to gather your audience
· not depend constantly on the changing policies of official expensive advertiser's platforms and their instructions
That is precisely what projects need in order to be successful during the limitation and expensive media.
If you are interested in the opportunities described above or you can offer services that will help crypto projects gather more audiences - feel free to write me: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) or in telegram - u/golubev_serge
Sergey Golubev (Сергей Голубев)
EU structural funds, ICO/STO/IEO projects, NGO & investment projects, project management, comprehensive support for business
submitted by Golubyev_Sergiy to digital_marketing [link] [comments]

‘’Pirates’’ will save crypto?

If you invested in bitcoin (or in another functional cryptocurrency) exactly a year ago, then even now despite the market drop caused by the new “black swan” - a recession against the background of coronavirus, you would get more than 35% growth.
Why do we see that the audience of followers is not updated? Why all the projects are fighting for the same fans who entered the crypto before 2018 and continuing to place media uselessly on the same sites? As we all remember, until 2018, each project had access to 2 billion audience through a whole set of tools from advertising on social networks to context advertising. We used LinkedIn, reddit, twitter and of course, the 2 main tools for attracting traffic (google and Facebook). Each crypto project, using these marketing instruments, brought its advertising messages to a new audience, not only carrying out the KPI of the project, but also fueling up interest in the blockchain as a whole industry; thereby increasing the demand for crypto and its liquidity. Like any new financial instrument, crypto is faced with the resistance of the old financial system:
· misinformation on TV and the mass media (crypto is a lie, crypto is a drug and terrorism)
· pressure from regulators (SEC refused, limited, punished)
· And, of course, a decision that has the most “destructive” effect - a ban on the largest advertising platforms in the world.
Unfortunately, the sweet times before the “ban” can no longer come back. Since January 2018, advertising of blockchain and cryptocurrency projects on most of the platforms in the world and social networks has been prohibited. The first to limit the right to advertise were Google AdWords and DoubleClick, introducing a direct ban on advertising content in terms of cryptocurrencies and related materials. A similar situation with context advertising is in Yandex Direct. Social networks also show unfair attitude to the crypto industry. Nonetheless, the crypto industry is approaching a line that it becomes simply impossible to ignore. After all, no matter how the new model is revolutionary and capable of making the world a better place — it is doomed to die if no one knows about it. Of course, if you have a good marketing agency, and you are a large and successful venture blockchain project (from the top of best and most famous), with all the necessary licenses, you can still compete for banning in fb and google. Moreover, although it takes a long time, I know several projects that now have permission for official advertising. Despite the fact that the largest platforms have banned startup blockchain advertising, there are still ways to promote it.
What should everyone else do? What to do for a new comer that is just entering the market. Or for an old project that failed to get into the top of the most recognizable? ‘’Use your existing inventory’’ - it seems like the most important piece of advice that almost every project follows. Now we see how hundreds of projects are simultaneously placing on the same platforms (crypto news, ICO listings, bloggers), squeezing the last attention and investments from the same target groups. What are the results? They are obvious. Fundraising is falling, the number of new users and investors is not increasing, and liquidity is falling. In addition, for these reasons, in the last year, crypto has finally turned out from an instrument that would destroy the hegemony of big money, into an instrument - not very studied and too volatile.
What to do in order to revive the interest to crypto? Right now, to start to search and apply new traffic tools. Sources that can give huge coverage and this will help attract new users to your project, for whom you can become the first successful investment in the blockchain. What to study from? What and how to apply? The easiest way, as always, is to learn the experience of those who live in the world of advertising restrictions for a very long period. For example - casinos, forex, bookmakers, unlicensed video etc. We analyzed the largest representatives of these advertisers and chose the most effective method of placement, which appeared in the top of all advertisers – pirate sites with unlicensed content. It is also not a secret that many well-known offline and online retailers and not only are not ashamed of advertising on such sites along with advertising of the above-discriminated businesses. In addition, the crypto industry can be considered so far as discriminated in its rights.
What makes pirate sites so attractive? The main sense of advertising on resources with unlicensed content is the incredibly large coverage of the audience at relatively low prices. The largest resources provide 10 million unique visitors every month. The cost differs depending on the format – pre roll, branding, banner, and order of display. Price - from $ 10 for 1 thousand unique views. It is also worth considering the possibility of paying with crypto and a simple workflow, which allows you to make placements for very young and unknown companies. Technically, such platforms can track all interested users, so that later they can activate their attention in other campaigns to optimize marketing and advertising costs, which will allow the advertiser to save the customer’s budget in such a financially turbulent time, while generating even more leads. Indeed, traditional media today are still too expensive and do not have such technical capabilities of their platforms. The millionth audience of pirate resources is explained by the fact that the user loves unlicensed content, and such a user has other interests and hobbies, including the crypto, blockchain, venture projects and much more, which is so discriminated in advertising by official media and social networks. The ethical issue in the modern world of capitalist chaos caused by the global crisis can be left aside, as for marketing strategies, such ‘’pirate’’ resources:
· provide an opportunity to build moderate total project costs
· save on advertising, but do not limit yourself in their use
· as much as possible and as soon as possible can reach your target group and collect leads
· despite of discrimination to the dissemination of information about the crypto and blockchain project, to have workarounds to gather your audience
· not depend constantly on the changing policies of official expensive advertiser's platforms and their instructions
That is precisely what projects need in order to be successful during the limitation and expensive media.
If you are interested in the opportunities described above or you can offer services that will help crypto projects gather more audiences - feel free to write me: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) or in telegram - u/golubev_serge
Sergey Golubev (Сергей Голубев)
EU structural funds, ICO/STO/IEO projects, NGO & investment projects, project management, comprehensive support for business
submitted by Golubyev_Sergiy to SocialMediaMarketing [link] [comments]

addaff

addaff

What Is Capitalism?

Capitalism is an economic system in which private individuals or businesses own capital goods. The production of goods and services is based on supply and demand in the general market—known as a market economy—rather than through central planning—known as a planned economy or command economy.
The purest form of capitalism is free market or laissez-faire capitalism. Here, private individuals are unrestrained. They may determine where to invest, what to produce or sell, and at which prices to exchange goods and services. The laissez-faire marketplace operates without checks or controls.
Today, most countries practice a mixed capitalist system that includes some degree of government regulation of business and ownership of select industries.
Volume 75% 2:05

Capitalism

Understanding Capitalism

Functionally speaking, capitalism is one process by which the problems of economic production and resource distribution might be resolved. Instead of planning economic decisions through centralized political methods, as with socialism or feudalism, economic planning under capitalism occurs via decentralized and voluntary decisions.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • Capitalism is an economic system characterized by private ownership of the means of production, especially in the industrial sector.
  • Capitalism depends on the enforcement of private property rights, which provide incentives for investment in and productive use of productive capital.
  • Capitalism developed historically out of previous systems of feudalism and mercantilism in Europe, and dramatically expanded industrialization and the large-scale availability of mass-market consumer goods.
  • Pure capitalism can be contrasted with pure socialism (where all means of production are collective or state-owned) and mixed economies (which lie on a continuum between pure capitalism and pure socialism).
  • The real-world practice of capitalism typically involves some degree of so-called “crony capitalism” due to demands from business for favorable government intervention and governments’ incentive to intervene in the economy.

Capitalism and Private Property

Private property rights are fundamental to capitalism. Most modern concepts of private property stem from John Locke's theory of homesteading, in which human beings claim ownership through mixing their labor with unclaimed resources. Once owned, the only legitimate means of transferring property are through voluntary exchange, gifts, inheritance, or re-homesteading of abandoned property.
Private property promotes efficiency by giving the owner of resources an incentive to maximize the value of their property. So, the more valuable the resource is, the more trading power it provides the owner. In a capitalist system, the person who owns the property is entitled to any value associated with that property.
For individuals or businesses to deploy their capital goods confidently, a system must exist that protects their legal right to own or transfer private property. A capitalist society will rely on the use of contracts, fair dealing, and tort law to facilitate and enforce these private property rights.
When a property is not privately owned but shared by the public, a problem known as the tragedy of the commons can emerge. With a common pool resource, which all people can use, and none can limit access to, all individuals have an incentive to extract as much use value as they can and no incentive to conserve or reinvest in the resource. Privatizing the resource is one possible solution to this problem, along with various voluntary or involuntary collective action approaches.

Capitalism, Profits, and Losses

Profits are closely associated with the concept of private property. By definition, an individual only enters into a voluntary exchange of private property when they believe the exchange benefits them in some psychic or material way. In such trades, each party gains extra subjective value, or profit, from the transaction.
Voluntary trade is the mechanism that drives activity in a capitalist system. The owners of resources compete with one another over consumers, who in turn, compete with other consumers over goods and services. All of this activity is built into the price system, which balances supply and demand to coordinate the distribution of resources.
A capitalist earns the highest profit by using capital goods most efficiently while producing the highest-value good or service. In this system, information about what is highest-valued is transmitted through those prices at which another individual voluntarily purchases the capitalist's good or service. Profits are an indication that less valuable inputs have been transformed into more valuable outputs. By contrast, the capitalist suffers losses when capital resources are not used efficiently and instead create less valuable outputs.

Free Enterprise or Capitalism?

Capitalism and free enterprise are often seen as synonymous. In truth, they are closely related yet distinct terms with overlapping features. It is possible to have a capitalist economy without complete free enterprise, and possible to have a free market without capitalism.
Any economy is capitalist as long as private individuals control the factors of production. However, a capitalist system can still be regulated by government laws, and the profits of capitalist endeavors can still be taxed heavily.
"Free enterprise" can roughly be understood to mean economic exchanges free of coercive government influence. Although unlikely, it is possible to conceive of a system where individuals choose to hold all property rights in common. Private property rights still exist in a free enterprise system, although the private property may be voluntarily treated as communal without a government mandate.
Many Native American tribes existed with elements of these arrangements, and within a broader capitalist economic family, clubs, co-ops, and joint-stock business firms like partnerships or corporations are all examples of common property institutions.
If accumulation, ownership, and profiting from capital is the central principle of capitalism, then freedom from state coercion is the central principle of free enterprise.

Feudalism the Root of Capitalism

Capitalism grew out of European feudalism. Up until the 12th century, less than 5% of the population of Europe lived in towns. Skilled workers lived in the city but received their keep from feudal lords rather than a real wage, and most workers were serfs for landed nobles. However, by the late Middle Ages rising urbanism, with cities as centers of industry and trade, become more and more economically important.
The advent of true wages offered by the trades encouraged more people to move into towns where they could get money rather than subsistence in exchange for labor. Families’ extra sons and daughters who needed to be put to work, could find new sources of income in the trade towns. Child labor was as much a part of the town's economic development as serfdom was part of the rural life.

Mercantilism Replaces Feudalism

Mercantilism gradually replaced the feudal economic system in Western Europe and became the primary economic system of commerce during the 16th to 18th centuries. Mercantilism started as trade between towns, but it was not necessarily competitive trade. Initially, each town had vastly different products and services that were slowly homogenized by demand over time.
After the homogenization of goods, trade was carried out in broader and broader circles: town to town, county to county, province to province, and, finally, nation to nation. When too many nations were offering similar goods for trade, the trade took on a competitive edge that was sharpened by strong feelings of nationalism in a continent that was constantly embroiled in wars.
Colonialism flourished alongside mercantilism, but the nations seeding the world with settlements were not trying to increase trade. Most colonies were set up with an economic system that smacked of feudalism, with their raw goods going back to the motherland and, in the case of the British colonies in North America, being forced to repurchase the finished product with a pseudo-currency that prevented them from trading with other nations.
It was Adam Smith who noticed that mercantilism was not a force of development and change, but a regressive system that was creating trade imbalances between nations and keeping them from advancing. His ideas for a free market opened the world to capitalism.

Growth of Industrial Capitalism

Smith's ideas were well-timed, as the Industrial Revolution was starting to cause tremors that would soon shake the Western world. The (often literal) gold mine of colonialism had brought new wealth and new demand for the products of domestic industries, which drove the expansion and mechanization of production. As technology leaped ahead and factories no longer had to be built near waterways or windmills to function, industrialists began building in the cities where there were now thousands of people to supply ready labor.
Industrial tycoons were the first people to amass their wealth in their lifetimes, often outstripping both the landed nobles and many of the money lending/banking families. For the first time in history, common people could have hopes of becoming wealthy. The new money crowd built more factories that required more labor, while also producing more goods for people to purchase.
During this period, the term "capitalism"—originating from the Latin word "capitalis," which means "head of cattle"—was first used by French socialist Louis Blanc in 1850, to signify a system of exclusive ownership of industrial means of production by private individuals rather than shared ownership.
Contrary to popular belief, Karl Marx did not coin the word "capitalism," although he certainly contributed to the rise of its use.

Industrial Capitalism's Effects

Industrial capitalism tended to benefit more levels of society rather than just the aristocratic class. Wages increased, helped greatly by the formation of unions. The standard of living also increased with the glut of affordable products being mass-produced. This growth led to the formation of a middle class and began to lift more and more people from the lower classes to swell its ranks.
The economic freedoms of capitalism matured alongside democratic political freedoms, liberal individualism, and the theory of natural rights. This unified maturity is not to say, however, that all capitalist systems are politically free or encourage individual liberty. Economist Milton Friedman, an advocate of capitalism and individual liberty, wrote in Capitalism and Freedom (1962) that "capitalism is a necessary condition for political freedom. It is not a sufficient condition."
A dramatic expansion of the financial sector accompanied the rise of industrial capitalism. Banks had previously served as warehouses for valuables, clearinghouses for long-distance trade, or lenders to nobles and governments. Now they came to serve the needs of everyday commerce and the intermediation of credit for large, long-term investment projects. By the 20th century, as stock exchanges became increasingly public and investment vehicles opened up to more individuals, some economists identified a variation on the system: financial capitalism.

Capitalism and Economic Growth

By creating incentives for entrepreneurs to reallocate away resources from unprofitable channels and into areas where consumers value them more highly, capitalism has proven a highly effective vehicle for economic growth.
Before the rise of capitalism in the 18th and 19th centuries, rapid economic growth occurred primarily through conquest and extraction of resources from conquered peoples. In general, this was a localized, zero-sum process. Research suggests average global per-capita income was unchanged between the rise of agricultural societies through approximately 1750 when the roots of the first Industrial Revolution took hold.
In subsequent centuries, capitalist production processes have greatly enhanced productive capacity. More and better goods became cheaply accessible to wide populations, raising standards of living in previously unthinkable ways. As a result, most political theorists and nearly all economists argue that capitalism is the most efficient and productive system of exchange.

Capitalism vs. Socialism

In terms of political economy, capitalism is often pitted against socialism. The fundamental difference between capitalism and socialism is the ownership and control of the means of production. In a capitalist economy, property and businesses are owned and controlled by individuals. In a socialist economy, the state owns and manages the vital means of production. However, other differences also exist in the form of equity, efficiency, and employment.

Equity

The capitalist economy is unconcerned about equitable arrangements. The argument is that inequality is the driving force that encourages innovation, which then pushes economic development. The primary concern of the socialist model is the redistribution of wealth and resources from the rich to the poor, out of fairness, and to ensure equality in opportunity and equality of outcome. Equality is valued above high achievement, and the collective good is viewed above the opportunity for individuals to advance.

Efficiency

The capitalist argument is that the profit incentive drives corporations to develop innovative new products that are desired by the consumer and have demand in the marketplace. It is argued that the state ownership of the means of production leads to inefficiency because, without the motivation to earn more money, management, workers, and developers are less likely to put forth the extra effort to push new ideas or products.

Employment

In a capitalist economy, the state does not directly employ the workforce. This lack of government-run employment can lead to unemployment during economic recessions and depressions. In a socialist economy, the state is the primary employer. During times of economic hardship, the socialist state can order hiring, so there is full employment. Also, there tends to be a stronger "safety net" in socialist systems for workers who are injured or permanently disabled. Those who can no longer work have fewer options available to help them in capitalist societies.

Mixed System vs. Pure Capitalism

When the government owns some but not all of the means of production, but government interests may legally circumvent, replace, limit, or otherwise regulate private economic interests, that is said to be a mixed economy or mixed economic system. A mixed economy respects property rights, but places limits on them.
Property owners are restricted with regards to how they exchange with one another. These restrictions come in many forms, such as minimum wage laws, tariffs, quotas, windfall taxes, license restrictions, prohibited products or contracts, direct public expropriation, anti-trust legislation, legal tender laws, subsidies, and eminent domain. Governments in mixed economies also fully or partly own and operate certain industries, especially those considered public goods, often enforcing legally binding monopolies in those industries to prohibit competition by private entities.
In contrast, pure capitalism, also known as laissez-faire capitalism or anarcho-capitalism, (such as professed by Murray N. Rothbard) all industries are left up to private ownership and operation, including public goods, and no central government authority provides regulation or supervision of economic activity in general.
The standard spectrum of economic systems places laissez-faire capitalism at one extreme and a complete planned economy—such as communism—at the other. Everything in the middle could be said to be a mixed economy. The mixed economy has elements of both central planning and unplanned private business.
By this definition, nearly every country in the world has a mixed economy, but contemporary mixed economies range in their levels of government intervention. The U.S. and the U.K. have a relatively pure type of capitalism with a minimum of federal regulation in financial and labor markets—sometimes known as Anglo-Saxon capitalism—while Canada and the Nordic countries have created a balance between socialism and capitalism.
Many European nations practice welfare capitalism, a system that is concerned with the social welfare of the worker, and includes such policies as state pensions, universal healthcare, collective bargaining, and industrial safety codes.

Crony Capitalism

Crony capitalism refers to a capitalist society that is based on the close relationships between business people and the state. Instead of success being determined by a free market and the rule of law, the success of a business is dependent on the favoritism that is shown to it by the government in the form of tax breaks, government grants, and other incentives.
In practice, this is the dominant form of capitalism worldwide due to the powerful incentives both faced by governments to extract resources by taxing, regulating, and fostering rent-seeking activity, and those faced by capitalist businesses to increase profits by obtaining subsidies, limiting competition, and erecting barriers to entry. In effect, these forces represent a kind of supply and demand for government intervention in the economy, which arises from the economic system itself.
Crony capitalism is widely blamed for a range of social and economic woes. Both socialists and capitalists blame each other for the rise of crony capitalism. Socialists believe that crony capitalism is the inevitable result of pure capitalism. On the other hand, capitalists believe that crony capitalism arises from the need of socialist governments to control the economy.
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Trump Didn’t Kill the Global Trade System. He Split It in Two.

This article is taken from the Wall Street Journal written about nine months ago and sits behind a a paywall, so I decided to copy and paste it here. This article explains Trump's policies toward global trade and what has actually happened so far. I think the article does a decent job of explaining the Trade War. While alot has happenedsince the article was written, I still think its relevant.
However, what is lacking in the article, like many articles on the trade war, is it doesn't really explain the history of US trade policy, the laws that the US administration is using to place tariffs on China and the official justification for the US President in enacting tariffs against China. In my analysis I will cover those points.

SUMMARY

When Trump entered the White House people feared he would dismantle the global system the US and its allies had built over the last 75 years, but he hasn't. He has realign into two systems. One between the US and its allies which looks similar to the one built since the 1980s with a few of quota and tariffs. As the article points out
Today, Korus and Nafta have been replaced by updated agreements(one not yet ratified) that look much like the originals. South Korea accepted quotas on steel. Mexico and Canada agreed to higher wages, North American content requirements and quotas for autos. Furthermore, the article points out Douglas Irwin, an economist and trade historian at Dartmouth College, calls these results the “status quo with Trumpian tweaks: a little more managed trade sprinkled about for favored industries. It’s not good, but it’s not the destruction of the system.” Mr. Trump’s actions so far affect only 12% of U.S. imports, according to Chad Bown of the Peterson Institute for International Economics. In 1984, 21% of imports were covered by similar restraints, many imposed by Mr. Reagan, such as on cars, steel, motorcycles and clothing. Protectionist instincts go so far in the US, there are strong lobby groups for both protectionist and freetrade in the US.
The second reflects a emerging rivalry between the US and China. Undo some of the integration that followed China accession to the WTO. Two questions 1) How far is the US willing to decouple with China 2) Can it persuade allies to join.
The second is going to be difficult because China's economic ties are greater than they were between the Soviets, and China isn't waging an ideological struggle. Trump lacks Reagan commitment to alliance and free trade. The status quo with China is crumbling Dan Sullivan, a Republican senator from Alaska, personifies these broader forces reshaping the U.S. approach to the world. When Mr. Xi visited the U.S. in 2015, Mr. Sullivan urged his colleagues to pay more attention to China’s rise. On the Senate floor, he quoted the political scientist Graham Allison: “War between the U.S. and China is more likely than recognized at the moment.” Last spring, Mr. Sullivan went to China and met officials including Vice President Wang Qishan. They seemed to think tensions with the U.S. will fade after Mr. Trump leaves the scene, Mr. Sullivan recalled. “I just said, ‘You are completely misreading this.’” The mistrust, he told them, is bipartisan, and will outlast Mr. Trump. both Bush II and Obama tried to change dialogue and engagement, but by the end of his term, Obama was questioning the approach. Trump has declared engagement. “We don’t like it when our allies steal our ideas either, but it’s a much less dangerous situation,” said Derek Scissors, a China expert at the American Enterprise Institute whose views align with the administration’s more hawkish officials. “We’re not worried about the war-fighting capability of Japan and Korea because they’re our friends.”
The article also points out unlike George Kennan in 1946 who made a case for containing the Soviet Union, the US hasn't explicitly made a case for containing the Soviets, Trump's administration hasn't, because as the the article explains its divided Michael Pillsbury a Hudson Institute scholar close to the Trump team, see 3 scenarios
Pillsbury thinks the third is most likely to happen, even though the administration hasn't said that it has adopted that policy. The US is stepping efforts to draw in other trading partners. The US, EU and Japan have launched a WTO effort to crack down on domestic subsidies and technology transfers requirement. US and Domestic concerns with prompted some countries to restrict Huawei. The US is also seeking to walloff China from other trade deals. However, there are risk with this strategy

ARTICLE

Trump Didn’t Kill the Global Trade System. He Split It in Two.

INTRODUCTION

My main criticism of this article is it tries like the vast majority of articles to fit US trade actions in the larger context of US geopolitical strategy. Even the author isn't certain "The first goes to the heart of Mr. Trump’s goal. If his aim is to hold back China’s advance, economists predict he will fail.". If you try to treat the trade "war" and US geopolitical strategy toward China as one, you will find yourself quickly frustrated and confused. If you treat them separately with their different set of stakeholders and histories, were they intersect with regards to China, but diverge. During the Cold War, trade policy toward the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc was subordinated to geopolitical concerns. For Trump, the trade issues are more important than geopolitical strategy. His protectionist trade rhetoric has been fairly consistent since 1980s. In his administration, the top cabinet members holding economic portfolios, those of Commerce, Treasury and US Trade Representative are the same people he picked when he first took office. The Director of the Economic Council has changed hands once, its role isn't as important as the National Security Advisor. While State, Defense, CIA, Homeland Security, UN Ambassador, National Security Advisor have changed hands at least once. Only the Director of National Intelligence hasn't changed.
International Trade makes up 1/4 of the US economy, and like national security its primarily the responsibility of the Federal government. States in the US don't implement their own tariffs. If you add the impact of Treasury policy and how it relates to capital flows in and out of the US, the amounts easily exceed the size of the US economy. Furthermore, because of US Dollar role as the reserve currency and US control of over global system the impact of Treasury are global. Trade policy and investment flows runs through two federal departments Commerce and Treasury and for trade also USTR. Defense spending makes up 3.3% of GDP, and if you add in related homeland security its at most 4%. Why would anyone assume that these two realms be integrated let alone trade policy subordinate to whims of a national security bureaucracy in most instances? With North Korea or Iran, trade and investment subordinate themselves to national security, because to Treasury and Commerce bureaucrats and their affiliated interest groups, Iran and the DPRK are well, economic midgets, but China is a different matter.
The analysis will be divided into four sections. The first will be to provide a brief overview of US trade policy since 1914. The second section will discuss why the US is going after China on trade issues, and why the US has resorted using a bilateral approach as opposed to going through the WTO. The third section we will talk about how relations with China is hashed out in the US.
The reason why I submitted this article, because there aren't many post trying to explain US-China Trade War from a trade perspective. Here is a post titled "What is the Reasons for America's Trade War with China, and not one person mentioned Article 301 or China's WTO Commitments. You get numerous post saying that Huawei is at heart of the trade war. Its fine, but if you don't know what was inside the USTR Investigative report that lead to the tariffs. its like skipping dinner and only having dessert When the US President, Donald J Trump, says he wants to negotiate a better trade deal with other countries, and has been going on about for the last 35 years, longer than many of you have been alive, why do people think that the key issues with China aren't primarily about trade at the moment.

OVERVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE ORIENTATION

Before 1940s, the US could be categorized as a free market protectionist economy. For many this may seem like oxymoron, how can an economy be free market and protectionist? In 1913, government spending made up about 7.5% of US GDP, in the UK it was 13%, and for Germany 18% (Public Spending in the 20th Century A Global Perspective: Ludger Schuknecht and Vito Tanzi - 2000). UK had virtual zero tariffs, while for manufactured goods in France it was 20%, 13% Germany, 9% Belgium and 4% Netherlands. For raw materials and agricultural products, it was almost zero. In contrast, for the likes of United States, Russia and Japan it was 44%, 84% and 30% respectively. Even though in 1900 United States was an economic powerhouse along with Germany, manufactured exports only made up 30% of exports, and the US government saw tariffs as exclusively a domestic policy matter and didn't see tariffs as something to be negotiated with other nations. The US didn't have the large constituency to push the government for lower tariffs abroad for their exports like in Britain in the 1830-40s (Reluctant Partners: A History of Multilateral Trade Cooperation, 1850-2000).
The Underwood Tariffs Act of 1913 which legislated the income tax, dropped the tariffs to 1850 levels levels.Until 16th amendment was ratified in 1913 making income tax legal, all US federal revenue came from excise and tariffs. In contrast before 1914, about 50% of UK revenue came from income taxes. The reason for US reluctance to introduced income tax was ideological and the United State's relative weak government compared to those in Europe. After the First World War, the US introduced the Emergency Tariff Act of 1921, than the Fordney–McCumber Tariff of 1922 followed by a Smoot-Hawley Act of 1930. Contrary to popular opinion, the Smoot-Hawley Act of 1930 had a small negative impact on the economy, since imports and exports played a small part of the US economy, and the tariffs were lower than the average that existed from 1850-1914.
Immediately after the Second World War, when the US economy was the only industrialized economy left standing, the economic focus was on rehabilitation and monetary stability. There was no grandiose and ideological design. Bretton Woods system linked the US dollar to gold to create monetary stability, and to avoid competitive devaluation and tariffs that plagued the world economy after Britain took itself off the gold in 1931. The US$ was the natural choice, because in 1944 2/3 of the world's gold was in the US. One reason why the Marshall Plan was created was to alleviate the chronic deficits Europeans countries had with the US between 1945-50. It was to rebuild their economies so they could start exports good to the US. Even before it was full implemented in 1959, it was already facing problems, the trade surpluses that the US was running in the 1940s, turned to deficits as European and Japanese economies recovered. By 1959, Federal Reserves foreign liabilities had already exceeded its gold reserves. There were fears of a run on the US gold supply and arbitrage. A secondary policy of the Bretton woods system was curbs on capital outflows to reduce speculation on currency pegs, and this had a negative impact on foreign investment until it was abandoned in 1971. It wasn't until the 1980s, where foreign investment recovered to levels prior to 1914. Factoring out the big spike in global oil prices as a result of the OPEC cartel, it most likely wasn't until the mid-1990s that exports as a % of GDP had reached 1914 levels.
Until the 1980s, the US record regarding free trade and markets was mediocre. The impetus to remove trade barriers in Europe after the Second World War was driven by the Europeans themselves. The EEC already had a custom union in 1968, Canada and the US have yet to even discuss implementing one. Even with Canada it took the US over 50 years to get a Free Trade Agreement. NAFTA was inspired by the success of the EEC. NAFTA was very much an elite driven project. If the Americans put the NAFTA to a referendum like the British did with the EEC in the seventies, it most likely wouldn't pass. People often look at segregation in the US South as a political issue, but it was economic issue as well. How could the US preach free trade, when it didn't have free trade in its own country. Segregation was a internal non-tariff barrier. In the first election after the end of the Cold War in 1992, Ross Perot' based most of independent run for the Presidency on opposition to NAFTA. He won 19% of the vote. Like Ross Perot before him, Donald Trump is not the exception in how America has handled tariffs since the founding of the Republic, but more the norm.
The embrace of free trade by the business and political elite can be attributed to two events. After the end of Bretton Woods in 1971, a strong vested interest in the US in the form of multinationals and Wall Street emerged advocating for removal of tariffs and more importantly the removal of restrictions on free flow of capital, whether direct foreign investment in portfolio investment. However, the political class embrace of free trade and capital only really took off after the collapse of the Soviet Union propelled by Cold War triumphalism.
As mentioned by the article, the US is reverting back to a pre-WTO relations with China. As Robert Lighthizer said in speech in 2000
I guess my prescription, really, is to move back to more of a negotiating kind of a settlement. Return to WTO and what it really was meant to be. Something where you have somebody make a decision but have it not be binding.
The US is using financial and legal instruments developed during the Cold War like its extradition treaties (with Canada and Europe), and Section 301. Here is a very good recent article about enforcement commitment that China will make.‘Painful’ enforcement ahead for China if trade war deal is reached with US insisting on unilateral terms
NOTE: It is very difficult to talk about US-China trade war without a basic knowledge of global economic history since 1914. What a lot of people do is politicize or subordinate the economic history to the political. Some commentators think US power was just handed to them after the Second World War, when the US was the only industrialized economy left standing. The dominant position of the US was temporary and in reality its like having 10 tonnes of Gold sitting in your house, it doesn't automatically translate to influence. The US from 1945-1989 was slowly and gradually build her influence in the non-Communist world. For example, US influence in Canada in the 1960s wasn't as strong as it is now. Only 50% of Canadian exports went to the US in 1960s vs 80% at the present moment.

BASIS OF THE US TRADE DISCUSSION WITH CHINA

According to preliminary agreement between China and the US based on unnamed sources in the Wall Street Journal article US, China close in on Trade Deal. In this article it divides the deal in two sections. The first aspects have largely to do with deficits and is political.
As part of a deal, China is pledging to help level the playing field, including speeding up the timetable for removing foreign-ownership limitations on car ventures and reducing tariffs on imported vehicles to below the current auto tariff of 15%. Beijing would also step up purchases of U.S. goods—a tactic designed to appeal to President Trump, who campaigned on closing the bilateral trade deficit with China. One of the sweeteners would be an $18 billion natural-gas purchase from Cheniere Energy Inc., people familiar with the transaction said.
The second part will involve the following.
  1. Commitment Regarding Industrial Policy
  2. Provisions to protect IP
  3. Mechanism which complaints by US companies can be addressed
  4. Bilateral meetings adjudicate disputes. If talks don't produce agreement than US can raise tariffs unilaterally
This grouping of conditions is similar to the points filled under the 301 investigation which serve the basis for initiating the tariffs. I have been reading some sources that say this discussion on this second group of broader issues could only be finalized later
The official justifications for placing the tariffs on Chinese goods is found under the March 2018 investigation submitted by the office of the President to Congress titled FINDINGS OF THE INVESTIGATION INTO CHINA’S ACTS, POLICIES, AND PRACTICES RELATED TO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, AND INNOVATION UNDER SECTION 301 OF THE TRADE ACT OF 1974. From this investigation the United States Trade Representative (USTR) place US Tariffs on Chinese goods as per Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974. Here is a press release by the USTR listing the reasons for placing tariffs, and the key section from the press release. Specifically, the Section 301 investigation revealed:
In the bigger context of trade relations between US and China, China is not honoring its WTO commitments, and the USTR issued its yearly report to Congress in early February about the status of China compliance with its WTO commitments. The points that served as a basis for applying Section 301, also deviate from her commitments as Clinton's Trade Representative Charlene Barshefsky paving the way for a trade war. Barshefsky argues that China's back sliding was happening as early as 2006-07, and believes the trade war could have been avoided has those commitments been enforced by previous administrations.
I will provide a brief overview of WTO membership and China's process of getting into the WTO.
WTO members can be divided into two groups, first are countries that joined in 1995-97, and were members of GATT, than there are the second group that joined after 1997. China joined in 2001. There is an argument that when China joined in 2001, she faced more stringent conditions than other developing countries that joined before, because the vast majority of developing countries were members of GATT, and were admitted to the WTO based on that previous membership in GATT. Here is Brookings Institute article published in 2001 titled "Issues in China’s WTO Accession"
This question is all the more puzzling because the scope and depth of demands placed on entrants into the formal international trading system have increased substantially since the formal conclusion of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations in 1994, which expanded the agenda considerably by covering many services, agriculture, intellectual property, and certain aspects of foreign direct investment. Since 1994, the international community has added agreements covering information technology, basic telecommunications services, and financial services. WTO membership now entails liberalization of a much broader range of domestic economic activity, including areas that traditionally have been regarded by most countries as among the most sensitive, than was required of countries entering the WTO’s predecessor organization the GATT.
The terms of China’s protocol of accession to the World Trade Organization reflect the developments just described and more. China’s market access commitments are much more far-reaching than those that governed the accession of countries only a decade ago. And, as a condition for membership, China was required to make protocol commitments that substantially exceed those made by any other member of the World Trade Organization, including those that have joined since 1995. The broader and deeper commitments China has made inevitably will entail substantial short-term economic costs.
What are the WTO commitments Barshefsky goes on about? When countries join the WTO, particularly those countries that weren't members of GATT and joined after 1997, they have to work toward fulfilling certain commitments. There are 4 key documents when countries make an accession to WTO membership, the working party report, the accession protocol paper, the goods schedule and service schedule.
In the working party report as part of the conclusion which specifies the commitment of each member country what they will do in areas that aren't compliant with WTO regulations on the date they joined. The problem there is no good enforcement mechanism for other members to force China to comply with these commitments. And WTO punishments are weak.
Here is the commitment paragraph for China
"The Working Party took note of the explanations and statements of China concerning its foreign trade regime, as reflected in this Report. The Working Party took note of the commitments given by China in relation to certain specific matters which are reproduced in paragraphs 18-19, 22-23, 35-36, 40, 42, 46-47, 49, 60, 62, 64, 68, 70, 73, 75, 78-79, 83-84, 86, 91-93, 96, 100-103, 107, 111, 115-117, 119-120, 122-123, 126-132, 136, 138, 140, 143, 145, 146, 148, 152, 154, 157, 162, 165, 167-168, 170-174, 177-178, 180, 182, 184-185, 187, 190-197, 199-200, 203-207, 210, 212-213, 215, 217, 222-223, 225, 227-228, 231-235, 238, 240-242, 252, 256, 259, 263, 265, 270, 275, 284, 286, 288, 291, 292, 296, 299, 302, 304-305, 307-310, 312-318, 320, 322, 331-334, 336, 339 and 341 of this Report and noted that these commitments are incorporated in paragraph 1.2 of the Draft Protocol. "
This is a tool by the WTO that list all the WTO commitment of each country in the working paper. In the goods and service schedule they have commitments for particular sectors. Here is the a press release by the WTO in September 2001, after successfully concluding talks for accession, and brief summary of key areas in which China hasn't fulfilled her commitments. Most of the commitments made by China were made to address its legacy as a non-market economy and involvement of state owned enterprises. In my opinion, I think the US government and investors grew increasingly frustrated with China, after 2007 not just because of China's back sliding, but relative to other countries who joined after 1997 like Vietnam, another non-market Leninist dictatorship. When comparing China's commitments to the WTO its best to compare her progress with those that joined after 1997, which were mostly ex-Soviet Republics.
NOTE: The Chinese media have for two decades compared any time the US has talked about China's currency manipulation or any other issue as a pretext for imposing tariffs on China to the Plaza Accords. I am very sure people will raise it here. My criticism of this view is fourfold. First, the US targeted not just Japan, but France, Britain and the UK as well. Secondly, the causes of the Japan lost decade were due largely to internal factors. Thirdly, Japan, UK, Britain and France in the 1980s, the Yuan isn't undervalued today. Lastly, in the USTR investigation, its China's practices that are the concern, not so much the trade deficit.

REASONS FOR TRUMPS UNILATERAL APPROACH

I feel that people shouldn't dismiss Trump's unilateral approach toward China for several reasons.
  1. The multilateral approach won't work in many issues such as the trade deficit, commercial espionage and intellectual property, because US and her allies have different interest with regard to these issues. Germany and Japan and trade surpluses with China, while the US runs a deficit. In order to reach a consensus means the West has to compromise among themselves, and the end result if the type of toothless resolutions you commonly find in ASEAN regarding the SCS. Does America want to "compromise" its interest to appease a politician like Justin Trudeau? Not to mention opposition from domestic interest. TPP was opposed by both Clinton and Trump during the election.
  2. You can't launch a geopolitical front against China using a newly formed trade block like the TPP. Some of the existing TPP members are in economic groups with China, like Malaysia and Australia.
  3. China has joined a multitude of international bodies, and at least in trade, these bodies haven't changed its behavior.
  4. Dealing with China, its a no win situation whether you use a tough multilateral / unilateral approach. If the US endorse a tough unilateral approach gives the impression that the US is acting like the British during the Opium War. If you take a concerted Western approach you are accused of acting like the 8 Powers Alliance in 1900.
  5. Trump was elected to deal with China which he and his supporters believe was responsible for the loss of millions manufacturing jobs when China joined the WTO in 2001. It is estimate the US lost 6 Million jobs, about 1/4 of US manufacturing Jobs. This has been subsequently advanced by some economists. The ball got rolling when Bill Clinton decided to grant China Most Favored Nation status in 1999, just a decade after Tiananmen.
  6. China hasn't dealt with issues like IP protection, market access, subsidies to state own companies and state funded industrial spying.
To his credit, Trump has said his aim was not to overthrow authoritarian governments, and that even applies to the likes of Iran. The Arab spring scared Russia and China, because the US for a brief moment placed the spread of democracy over its security interest.

UNDERSTANDING HOW THE US MAKES DECISIONS REGARDING CHINA

At this moment, China or the trade war isn't an area of great concern for the American public, among international issues it ranks lower than international terrorism, North Korea and Iran's nuclear program.
According to the survey, 39 percent of the country views China’s growing power as a “critical threat” to Americans. That ranked it only eighth among 12 potential threats listed and placed China well behind the perceived threats from international terrorism (66 percent), North Korea’s nuclear program (59 percent) and Iran’s nuclear program (52 percent). It’s also considerably lower than when the same question was asked during the 1990s, when more than half of those polled listed China as a critical threat. That broadly tracks with a recent poll from the Pew Research Center that found concern about U.S.-China economic issues had decreased since 2012.
In looking at how US conducts relations foreign policy with China, we should look at it from the three areas of most concern - economic, national security and ideology. Each sphere has their interest groups, and sometimes groups can occupy two spheres at once. Security experts are concerned with some aspects of China's economic actions like IP theft and industrial policy (China 2025), because they are related to security. In these sphere there are your hawks and dove. And each sphere is dominated by certain interest groups. That is why US policy toward China can often appear contradictory. You have Trump want to reduce the trade deficit, but security experts advocating for restrictions on dual use technology who are buttressed by people who want export restrictions on China, as a way of getting market access.
Right now the economic concerns are most dominant, and the hawks seem to dominate. The economic hawks traditionally have been domestic manufacturing companies and economic nationalist. In reality the hawks aren't dominant, but the groups like US Companies with large investment in China and Wall Street are no longer defending China, and some have turned hawkish against China. These US companies are the main conduit in which China's lobby Congress, since China only spends 50% of what Taiwan spends lobbying Congress.
THE ANGLO SAXON WORLD AND CHINA
I don't think many Chinese even those that speak English, have a good understanding Anglo-Saxon society mindset. Anglo Saxons countries, whether US, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Ireland are commerce driven society governed by sanctity of contracts. The English great philosophical contributions to Western philosophy have primarily to do with economics and politics like Adam Smith, John Locke, David Hume and Thomas Hobbes. This contrast with the French and Germans. Politics in the UK and to a lesser extent the US, is centered around economics, while in Mainland Europe its religion. When the Americans revolted against the British Empire in 1776, the initial source of the grievances were taxes.
Outside of East Asia, the rest of the World's relationship with China was largely commercial, and for United States, being an Anglosaxon country, even more so. In Southeast Asia, Chinese aren't known for high culture, but for trade and commerce. Outside Vietnam, most of Chinese loans words in Southeast Asian languages involve either food or money. The influence is akin to Yiddish in English.
Some people point to the Mao and Nixon meeting as great strategic breakthrough and symbol of what great power politics should look like. The reality is that the Mao-Nixon meeting was an anomaly in the long history of relations with China and the West. Much of China-Western relations over the last 500 years was conducted by multitudes of nameless Chinese and Western traders. The period from 1949-1979 was the only period were strategic concerns triumphed trade, because China had little to offer except instability and revolution. Even in this period, China's attempt to spread revolution in Southeast Asia was a threat to Western investments and corporate interest in the region. During the nadir of both the Qing Dynasty and Republican period, China was still engaged in its traditional commercial role. Throughout much of history of their relations with China, the goals of Britain and the United States were primarily economic,
IMAGINE JUST 10% OF CHINA BOUGHT MY PRODUCT
From the beginning, the allure of China to Western businesses and traders has been its sheer size I. One of the points that the USTR mentions is lack of market access for US companies operating in China, while Chinese companies face much less restrictions operating in the US.
This is supported by remarks by Henry Paulson and Charlene Barshefsky. As Paulson remarked
Trade with China has hurt some American workers. And they have expressed their grievances at the ballot box.
So while many attribute this shift to the Trump Administration, I do not. What we are now seeing will likely endure for some time within the American policy establishment. China is viewed—by a growing consensus—not just as a strategic challenge to the United States but as a country whose rise has come at America’s expense. In this environment, it would be helpful if the US-China relationship had more advocates. That it does not reflects another failure:
In large part because China has been slow to open its economy since it joined the WTO, the American business community has turned from advocate to skeptic and even opponent of past US policies toward China. American business doesn’t want a tariff war but it does want a more aggressive approach from our government. How can it be that those who know China best, work there, do business there, make money there, and have advocated for productive relations in the past, are among those now arguing for more confrontation? The answer lies in the story of stalled competition policy, and the slow pace of opening, over nearly two decades. This has discouraged and fragmented the American business community. And it has reinforced the negative attitudinal shift among our political and expert classes. In short, even though many American businesses continue to prosper in China, a growing number of firms have given up hope that the playing field will ever be level. Some have accepted the Faustian bargain of maximizing today’s earnings per share while operating under restrictions that jeopardize their future competitiveness. But that doesn’t mean they’re happy about it. Nor does it mean they aren’t acutely aware of the risks — or thinking harder than ever before about how to diversify their risks away from, and beyond, China.
What is interesting about Paulson's speech is he spend only one sentence about displaced US workers, and a whole paragraph about US business operating in China. While Kissinger writes books about China, how much does he contribute to both Democrats and the Republicans during the election cycle? China is increasingly makING it more difficult for US companies operating and those exporting products to China.

CONTINUED

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List of 5 Best Forex Trading Robots

List of 5 Best Forex Trading Robots
On a popular forex robot review resource from a large group of traders from around the world, an experienced team of real professionals introduced to the traders a collection of five robots that are the best and provide users with the widest functionality for easy Forex trading. Robots need a remote server (computer) that operates around the clock and has a permanent Internet connection. It should be borne in mind that not all consultants are profitable. There are many restrictions on their work; most novice traders do not want to invest in the purchase of consultants.

https://preview.redd.it/45x66xhkxpc41.png?width=933&format=png&auto=webp&s=dfdfc206b57ce675e828fea684e7a6cf17f29cb9
Our specialists have compiled a list of 5 Expert Advisors that give traders the highest opportunities to find the best robots that are available to work on Forex, a list of 5 best Expert Advisors that the most experienced traders use and receive solid financial resources.
The list of 5 robots, to facilitate the work of traders in the Forex market has been drawn up for a long time, during all this period the principles of functioning of the ten most versatile, optimal robots for comfortable trading on Forex were carefully studied, and here our experienced specialists made and showed the traders a list of 5 the most popular, most effective, functional robots –
  • RoFX,
  • inControl Reborn
  • Forex Fury
  • Rob Booker Robots
  • FXAdept EA, Which are presented on our site.
All 5 robots are considered to be the most functional and popular among traders all over the world. On our site you can find detailed information about these software complexes, which also have reviews from leading companies and traders that are available for your analysis and which contain thousands of exciting user reviews.
Our list includes the top 5 best Forex Trading Advisors, which are the most optimal automated programs that save the trader from serious inconvenience: the need to constantly monitor the trading process, stay on hold and observe the dynamics of currency quotes. It must be said that the use of commercial robots significantly reduces the nervous load on the trader and significantly reduces the number of errors.
The main advantage of sales consultants is that they have a well-defined algorithm that works well. You can define your own ideas by using an algorithm that is further implemented in practical currency trading. Commercial transactions used in the foreign exchange market can be automatic or semi-automatic. It is not difficult to guess that in the first case, the operation goes into automatic mode, which prevents the trader from interfering with the reconciliation process and relies on a previously written algorithm.
However, this does not absolve you of the obligation to set the robot into operating mode as a financial instrument. In addition, the Forex trading robot must be updated periodically to adapt to changing market conditions. When it comes to semi-automatic consultants, they are more helpful to the trader as the final decision is still up to him. However, a commercial robot does the basic job for humans: it performs mathematical calculations, analyzes the market, and provides recommendations at the right time to enter and exit the trading floor.
Imagine you do not have Internet access. At this point, an automated consultant can successfully act for you. All you have to do is give clear instructions and start trading. You can view the work of an expert assistant on a demo account Forex online without risking your own money, and get detailed information on the effectiveness of the consultant.
In our list, you can choose among the auto trading consultants the most efficient system that fully meets all your requirements and expectations. It should be noted that mathematical systems use calculations and conduct various trading operations in ways that do not take into account the dynamics of currency price changes. These experts include equalization systems. Technical systems include algorithms that work with charts, metrics, and technical analysis that are required to conduct trading operations effectively. Combined advisers, in turn, do not exclude mathematical probabilities and depend on technical analysis.
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Google released Android 10 for Pixel smartphones

Google released Android 10 for Pixel smartphones
Google has released the first stable version of the Android ten operating system for regular users. While it is available only for Google Pixel smartphones.
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The company promised that on smartphones from other manufacturers, Android 10 would appear later in 2019. The exact dates and specific partners at Google were not named. Some models of smartphones Huawei, OnePlus, LG, Xiaomi, and other manufacturers participated in testing the beta versions of Android 10.
Part of the features that Android 10 received:
A dark theme which can be activated both for individual applications and for the entire system.
The "smart answer" supports various actions with notifications: for example, the system prompts you to immediately open the link in Chrome, the video on YouTube, the address in the maps application.
Updated navigation with gestures: swiping on the screen replaces the "Back" button; by default, when swiping to the right, the system deletes the notification, and when swiping to the left, it opens a new menu.
Live Caption - creates subtitles for video and audio clips (for example, podcasts or audio messages) in any application in real-time.
Security updates and other vital components of the Android OS are downloaded via Google Play. This way, Google will be able to quickly distribute essential updates without waiting for device manufacturers to download them.
Control over track location. For example, a user may restrict tracking for applications to their active use only. The system will warn if an application continues to track location after closing.
Focus Mode allows you to temporarily disable applications that distract the user from the main work, including social networks, instant messengers, YouTube, and more. The feature will be available later in 2019.
You can find more information about the stock market, commodity market, and FOREX on the ITRADER site.
This material is considered a marketing communication and does not contain, and should not be construed as containing, investment advice or an investment recommendation or, an offer of or solicitation for any transactions in financial instruments.
Risk Warning: CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 84.16% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.
Legal Information: ITRADER is operated by Hoch Capital Ltd., a Cypriot Investment Firm (CIF), authorized and regulated by the Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC) under the license no. 198/13, in accordance with the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID II).
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What Is Forex?

What Is Forex?

A New Era

Although it might seem easy to invest in Forex nowadays, by just logging into an account with a broker, deposit some money and start actively trading; it has not always been like this, as forex industry has rapidly changed in the past three decades.
Before technology and free-floating currencies took over the industry, world currency exchanges were operating under the Bretton Woods System of Money Management. This agreement established rules for commercial and financial relations among top economies, tying their currencies to gold. Hence, a currency note issued by any world government represented a real amount of gold held in a vault by that nation. When in July 1944 delegates from all over the world sign off the pact, the main goal was to reduce lack of cooperation between countries and therefore avoiding currency wars. This process of regulating the foreign exchange brought to the foundation of the international money fund (IMF) and the International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), today part of World bank Group.
However, in the early 70s the real-world economics outpaced the system, dollar suffered from severe inflation cutting its value by half. At that time unemployment rate was 6.1% and inflation 5.84%. Finally, in August 1971, U.S. government led by Richard Nixon took away gold standard, creating the first fiat currency and replacing Bretton Woods System with De Facto. Together with this there were other important measures taken by the USA president to combat that high inflation regime:
  1. This decision was driven by many European nations asking to redeem their dollars for gold, till leaving Bretton Woods System. This had an enormous impact on USD which plunged against European currencies. Consequently, USA congress release a report suggesting USD devaluation to protect the currency from foreign gougers. However, dollar dropped again, and Treasury Secretary was directed to suspend the USD convertibility with gold; hence foreign governments could no longer exchange their USD with gold.
  2. The inflation level was skyrocketing and one more action taken by Nixon was to freeze all wages and prices for 90 days, this was the first time since WWII.
  3. Import surcharge of 10% was set up to safeguard American products ensuring no disadvantage in trades.
Today, USD dominates financial markets, accounting together with the EURO, for approximately 50% of all currency exchange transactions in the world.
1971 represents the beginning of a new forex trading era, bringing this market to be the largest and most liquid in the world, with an average of daily trading volume exceeding $5trn. All the world’s combined stock markets don t even come close to this, what does this mean to you?
In an environment which is controlled by free-floating currencies moving constantly, following principles of supply and demand, there are constant and exciting trading opportunities, unavailable when investing in different markets.
In this article are shared main features of what is forex trading today and how can be an incredible new source of income for everyone who is into financial markets.

What Is Forex?

Forex is the acronym for foreign exchange which intends to be a decentralized or over the counter (OTC) marketplace, where currencies from all over the world are traded 24 hours, five days a week. Main financial centres include New York, Chicago, London, Tokyo and Frankfurt for Eurozone. It is by far the largest market in the world in terms of volume, followed by the credit market. Being highly liquid is an important feature that allows traders to be able to enter and exit their positions very quickly. Nevertheless, while trading forex, an investor should be aware of several components:
Dynamicity – forex is an extremely fast environment, this means that currency rates can move very fast, influenced by price action signals and fundamental factors. Therefore, going into forex trading, one needs to be aware of adopting serious risk and money management strategies in order to be effective, limiting losses.
Zero Sum Game – trading forex is not like investing in the stock market but is known to be a zero-sum game. For example, going into the equity market buying some tech shares, they could both rise or decrease in value. In forex is different because currencies work in pairs; for instance, an investor decides Euro will go up he or she is doing it against another currency. Thus, in this specific marketplace one currency will rise while the other will fall, meaning an investor is buying the currency hoping it will appreciate to the other, or selling the one that will depreciate.
See image below:
Figure 1: Main traded currency pairs
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Currency pairs are composed by a base and a price currency. Main forex trading principle is how much price currency an investor can buy using 1 unit of the base, thus, the base currency, which is the first one in line within the quotation, is always equal to 1.
Because like every financial instrument currency pairs are driven by fundamentals of supply and demand, forex is intensively influenced by geopolitical and macroeconomic factors.
Capital Markets – these are the most visible indicators of a country economic health, where usually the healthier the economy the stronger the currency. For example, a rapid sell-off from a country will show that nation is not economically stable, subsequently investors will think negatively of it depreciating its currency.
Moreover, many countries are sector driven, this means that their currencies are strictly correlated with certain resources. For instance, Canada which is a commodity-based market, CAD is strictly linked to price of Brent and metals, a swing in those will affect the Canadian currency.
Finally, credit market is also connected to forex since also relies heavily on interest rate so, a change in bond yield will have major impact on currency prices. like increase in yield will favour bullish market for USD
International Trade – Trade levels serve as a proxy for relative demand of goods from a nation, a country which goods and services that are in high demand internationally, will experience an appreciation to its currency. This is an effect driven by all other countries converting their currencies into the one of that state to purchase its goods and services. Let’s say a product from USA is in high demand globally, all the other countries must sell their currencies to buy dollars to then see their goods shipped, thus USD will appreciate.
Trade surplus and deficit also indicate a nation competitive standing in international trade. Countries with a large trade deficit are usually importers resulting in more of their currencies being sold to buy goods worldwide, thus they will see their currencies devaluate.
Geopolitics – The political landscape of a nation places a major role in the economic outlook for that country and consequently, the perceived value of its own currency. Beside building up price action strategies, based purely on price levels, forex traders constantly look at economic calendars and news to gauge what could move currencies. A geopolitical event which is having a great impact on GBP, is the election of Boris Johnson as UK prime minister, driving the local currency to 2 years low, yesterday 29th of July 2019. Therefore, when investors observe instability from a nation political environment, there are high chances that the currency of that country will depreciate.

Why Trading Forex

Beside swapping from a gold standard to free-floating, which change the whole forex trading game, technology is another crucial factor that helped this financial sector to spread globally. With the introduction of internet in the 90s forex opened to retail investors giving access to various trading platforms. The introduction of online platforms and retail investments have increased forex market volume by 5%, up to $250bn of its daily turnover. Different traders may have different reasons for selecting forex, however, mostly is because this is a fertile market plenty of daily opportunities to gauge price action and profit from it.

Volatility

How traders profit from trading forex? Basics of trading are rather simple to understand. An investor buys an asset at a certain price hoping to get rid of it for a higher price. The more volatile is the market for that specific financial instrument, the more revenue is possible to make. Therefore, a trader is looking for long up and down moves rather than market fluctuating sideways.
Volatility is great in forex and a trader can expect to regularly see prices oscillating 50-100 pips on major currency pairs almost any day of the week. Yet again, due to this enormous constant fluctuation, potential losses or gains can be very high thus, rigours money management must be applied to avoid major damages and become a profitable trader. To conclude, volatility is the main characteristic investors are looking at and that is why it is one of the main feature traders can take advantage.
See image below:

Figure 2: FDAX Volatility, H4 (30th May 2019, 16:00, 30th July 2019, 16:00)

Accessibility & Technology

While volatility is the most important element out in the market that tell us why forex is the best market to trade, accessibility comes straight after. This market is more accessible than all the others, trading forex requires an online desk position and as little as $100 to start off an account.
In comparison with the other financial markets, forex requires a rather low trading capital. Moreover, trading forex can be easily accessible from your PC, tablet or mobile since most of retail broker firms operate online. Although, accessibility cannot tell the quality of the market by itself, it definitely shows a reason why many investors try their first trading experience on forex.
Also, the rapid introduction of technology since the 90s, made trading much easier. There are every year more advanced online platforms to trade on with many possible updates and that is why trading forex is edging for many global investors.

Forex Players

Before the introduction of free-floating currency and more importantly cutting hedge technology, forex was a market that could have been traded only by institutional investors. Nowadays however, even retail and individual investor can take advantage of the huge volume forex offers every day.
Banks
Interbank market is the major responsible for the high volume registered daily in forex. This is the place where banks exchange currency among each other, facilitating forex transactions for customers and speculate for their trading desks.
  • Clients transactions: in this case banks of all size act as dealer for clients, where the bid-ask spread represents the profit for the institutions.
  • Speculation: currencies are traded to profit from their price fluctuations as well as to increase diversification on their portfolio
Because banking institutions are the biggest players in foreign exchange market, they are able to push up and down the price of currencies giving an extreme advantage and higher volatility to individual traders who are trying to gauge price moves.
Central Banks
Central banks representing their nation’s government, are crucial in forex. They oversee monetary and fiscal policies having massive influence on currency rates. A central bank is responsible for fixing the price level of its native currency on the market, in other words they take care of the regime currencies will float in the open market.
  • Floating: these are the currencies which price floats on the open market based on principles of supply and demand relative to other currencies
  • Pegged (fixed exchange rate): opposite to floating currencies pegged ones are not free-floating in the open market however, their government rather tie them to the value of a stronger foreign currency. Pegged currencies are more seen in developing countries (CYN to USD).
Because central banks manage interest rates in order to increase the competitiveness of their native nation to another.
  • Dovish: these policies will be lowering down interest rates. A central bank which applies dovish conditions aims to give economic stimulus and guard against deflation. Usually a policy intended to give economy stimulus will weakening the currency value.
  • Hawkish: on the other hand, hawkish policies lead to an increase in interest rate. A central bank that uses hawkish measures aims to reduce inflation. Typically, this kind of policies will reinforce the country currency value.
Investment Managers & Hedge Funds
Portfolio managers and hedge funds are the second investors in forex after central and investment banks. They are hired by huge institutions such as pension to manage their assets. However while portfolio managers of pool funds will buy currency to speculate on foreign securities, hedge funds execute speculative trades as part of their strategies.
Corporations
Also international corporation play a big role in forex. Those firms operating globally, buying and selling goods and services are involved in forex transactions daily. Imagine an American company producing pipes that imports Japanese components and sell the finished product to China. After the sale is closed the CYN must be converted back to USD, while the American company must exchange USD into JPY to repay for the components supply.
Moreover, company involved in international trade have an interest in forex in order to hedge the risk associated with currencies fluctuations making several foreign exchange transactions. For instance, the same American company might buy JPY at spot rate, or enter a swap agreement to obtain JPY in advance, overtaking the risk of the Japanese currency to rise in the future. Therefore, forex become crucial to run companies with many subsidiaries and suppliers all over the word.
Individual & Retail Investors
Even though this investor cluster brings to forex a very limited volume compared to financial institutions and corporations, it is rapidly growing in numbers and popularity. These base their trades on a mixture of fundamentals and technical analysis.
Bottom line, main reason why forex is the most traded market in the world is because gives everyone, from top financial institutions to retail and individual trades, opportunities to make returns on capital invested from currencies price fluctuations related to global economy.
submitted by Horizon_Trading to u/Horizon_Trading [link] [comments]

Mainfinex: The Panacea to the Future

Mainfinex: The Panacea to the Future

Mainfinex

MAINFINEX offers a trusted exchange that crypto traders can use to make informed trades and participate in the cryptocurrency market. At the time of launch, MAINFINEX offers 15 different cryptocurrency pairs, all of which include USDT. The MAINFINEX cryptocurrency exchange offers something for every type of trader, regardless of experience level. Beginners will appreciate the intuitive interface and the fact that MAINFINEX uses Tradingview charts, which have numerous online tutorials for guidance. Advanced traders will appreciate the hundreds of drawing tools, the vast quantity of indicators, and high level of customization for charts.
Challenges faced by cryptocurrency exchanges today:
● Failure to apply global financial practices, and poor interface
● Large number of exchanges with little differentiation which complicates the choice of platform for operations
● Large number of unsuccessful traders losing money
● Pain points that are still there.

Exchange
Our understanding of the needs of the key trading parties in digital exchanges comes down to the concept “Traders seek liquidity and investors need profitability.”
  1. Liquidity and profitability
A mechanism we could build in to solve the problems of traders and long-term investors based on the exchange policy related to
trading fees:
  • Flexible interest rate depending on the volume, thus reducing the trading fee. The more activity in a trading section, the cheaper it is for that section
  • Fees reduced in case of severe price deviation. To reduce volatility and slippage and thus increase liquidity, market-making traders creating liquidity will be charged at a lower rate. The increase in volumes triggered by the reduced fee in case of price deviation will help smoothen out volatility.
  1. Reliability
Traders bearing losses have a regressive fee scale depending on the volume of the loss. This mechanism serves to mitigate the consequences of unfavorable deals for a trader.
  1. Sustainability “Back to the battle” Traders who have lost money but made it to the daily TOP 100 based on the volume will receive tokens compensating all the fees they paid or part of the losses. This will help stimulate liquidity in the exchange and create best cryptocurrency market conditions for arbitrage funds. Such funds account for up 80% of transaction in fiat exchanges.
  2. Concept: gaming elements of the exchange, buttons, etc. “Titles and statuses” With the emergence of cryptocurrencies, the world of finance has been transformed. It has to be clear and relevant for our users since the key audience of the exchange is 25-38 years old. Which means they played DOOM 2 when they were school students (in 1994). Why can’t we give simple names to complex financial instruments? It was the stunts and dirty tricks that guys in suits from investment banks played that eventually caused the mortgage crisis. We have selected the most popular financial instruments that we can provide. They can be understood and activated in one click. We have chosen simple names for them:
● "Forecast”
This button activates an analytical indicator used by most profitable traders
● "Call for help”
Activates a trading robot that will close transactions for you based on algorithms. Trading robots will be provided by successful third party funds
● "Stop me”
Block trading activity for two days. This is a mechanism that successful traders recommend to newbies. Breaks in trading activity help increase the accuracy of decisions and overall profitability
● "Join the group”
This function lets the user transfer money to a pool of professional traders. Similar to PAMM accounts in forex companies
● “Saving up for retirement”
10% from each profitable transaction will be automatically transferred to the annual/call deposit. Many experienced traders who work for themselves do not care about savings because trading is a constant source of big income. Having such a long-term deposit is one of the key ways to ensure security and can even save a family in the bad times
● “Work for us”
Traders without substantial deposits but with free working hours can make money by performing important tasks for the exchange, like in Amazon Mechanical Turk
● “Vanity fair”
Most successful traders may share their divine trading strategies in a master class for traders, with payment in our tokens.
  1. To benefit from certain options like the trading robot or funds management, users will be required to perform specific actions, e.g.: Purchasing exchange tokens. Equivalent free options: e.g., reposting our news daily throughout a month, which will also help expand the user’s subscriber base.
  2. Purchasing liquidity from “mini exchanges”
A partner exchange that will provide liquidity for trading in our exchange or display our depth of market diagram on its website will receive all the relevant fees collected in our tokens. This is how this mechanism works. Mini exchanges have a permanent audience of traders creating liquidity but due to the small volumes, the mutual liquidity among the participants is low and transactions are infrequent. This is a case of “the chicken or the egg” problem. The more users there are, the more frequently the transactions occur between the same users. Accordingly, a mini exchange will be able to increase the volume of fees collected by 3-4 times by using this opportunity.
  1. IEO sale
A shopping cart with all kinds of tokens. Includes both potentially successful and unsuccessful coins that cannot afford to pay the listing fee on their own. We collect the entire pool in a cart and sell it as one portfolio at a greatly reduced price. This gives unsuccessful ICO projects an opportunity to return part of the invested funds. And the users buying such assets at a rate below the cost level have more chances of profiting from price growth. The higher risk of unsuccessful projects in the portfolio compensated by the low price and the potentially high profitability is the key incentive.
  1. Exchange Tutorial
Just like in complex computer games such as urban construction simulators or turn-based strategies, at the first stage the player is taught how to use the game’s functionalities before he starts playing it in the full mode. Finance and cryptocurrencies have never been simple. Every individual financial instrument is based on a complex concept. The simplicity of starting to trade cryptocurrencies and the lack of regulation in the market result in a situation when most traders lose their money and investments. The tutorial works the same simple way, providing prompts on the sequence of the steps in the exchange. We will cooperate with several financial regulators to improve this instrument in order to develop new instruments that will help mitigate the risk of losses for each individual trader. At the end, many of the regulators’ tasks come down to managing the consequences of the great financial gap between trading parties.

Information correct at time of going to type. For updated information, go to Mainfinex Exchange web platform (Mainfinex Exchange website).
Note: In the event of conflict between this information and the information on the Mainfinex Exchange Website, the information on the Mainfinex Exchange Website will prevail.
Here, I present to you Mainfinex- The Future of Cryptocurrency Exchange, Mainfinex!!!
Mainfinex Exchange website
Mainfinex Exchange WhitePaper
ETH Address: 0x49d576e54C78e17E4451E7eF9f1d9C8e55360661
Email Address: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
submitted by Busganda to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

[Changelog] - 2/5/2019 - Portfolio Upgrades, WebSocket API Beta, and an Easter Egg

The Cryptowatch team has traveled from across the globe (galaxy?) to come to the ski slopes of an undisclosed location to put together this release for you.

Portfolio Upgrades

We've added a quote currency selector to the portfolio, so you can see your balance in whatever currency you prefer. Our personal favorite, you ask? The IDR, of course. It makes us look the best!

WebSocket API Beta

Our WebSocket API for streaming live prices from all markets on Cryptowat.ch is now live in beta. A few select partners have hammered on it for a few weeks - and you could be next. If you shoot an email to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) with your Cryptowatch username, we can get you set up with access to the beta. Cryptowatch accounts are now free, so go ahead and create one if you haven't yet!

Kraken WebSocket API Launched

Kraken recently launched their streaming WebSocket API, which Cryptowatch now uses to populate Kraken markets. You'll notice much snappier data on all Kraken markets, and we'll soon have deeper order books for Kraken as a result.

New Themes

To match with the new Kraken branding, we've released two new themes to Cryptowatch: Kraken Dark (New) and Kraken Light (New). Check them out in the settings menu on the home page and any chart page.

PGP Keys

Cryptowat.ch has always had a passion and respect for the right of our clients to privacy and security. As we begin to send more emails and communications to clients, you'll occasionally see a "signature.asc" file attached to your emails from us: if you use an email client that supports PGP signatures, like ProtonMail or Thunderbird with Enigmail, you can import our PGP keys to validate the authenticity of our emails to you.

From Pairs to Instruments

While you won't notice any changes to the user interface as a result of this update, it marks a major moment in our ability to support advanced financial products. Currently, Cryptowat.ch (and most services in the crypto space) are built around a "currency exchange" (forex) model of trading one asset for another - a "base" for a "quote". With the changes we are making, we can now support financial products like futures, swaps, options, loans, and more. We cannot promise any of these will be added - but we are working towards a structure that will allow us to do so in the future, should we choose to do so!

QuadrigaCX Disabled

Due to recent tragedies around the QuadrigaCX exchange, we've disabled all of their markets.

Easter Egg

Look out on our Twitter for something interesting coming later this week. It has to do with pairs to instruments, as well as Kraken's acquisition of futures and indices provider Crypto Facilities.

Want to trade across all your exchanges on the fastest market data in crypto? Sign up for a free Cryptowatch account here.
submitted by kraken-evan to cryptowatch [link] [comments]

Welcome to the official Binary.com subreddit

Welcome!

Hi everyone! Welcome to the official Binary.com subreddit. Take a look around, ask us a question, and start a discussion about anything and everything related to Binary.com  
The aim of this subreddit is to provide a safe and thriving discussion space for traders, investors, developers, partners, and just about anyone who’s interested in binary options trading and its underlying technology.  
We’ll be posting news and updates, especially about our upcoming ICO, and we’d love to see you share your thoughts, ideas, and relevant links that you think might interest the community.  

Who is Binary.com?

Binary.com (formerly BetOnMarkets.com) is the pioneer in online binary options trading. We started out in 2000 to make binary options –– also known as fixed-odds financial trading –– easily available to ordinary investors worldwide. Before we came onto the scene, binary options were typically traded only in large quantities.  
In 2016, we ventured into Forex and CFD trading with the MetaTrader 5 platform. In May 2017, we added cryptocurrencies to the list of tradable assets on our MT5 platform, starting with BTC/USD. This was followed by ETH/USD and LTC/USD a month later.  

What is a binary option?

A binary option is one of the simplest financial instruments around. It has a fixed payout and only two possible outcomes.  
A binary option is commonly known by these unique attributes:

Useful links

P.S. Check out the sidebar for more useful links!
submitted by binary_reddit to binarydotcom [link] [comments]

Looking for Beta Users for Groundbreaking P2P Swap Trading System, Maximum Leverage, Minimum Risk, All Markets

I'm looking for traders to take positions (either in agreement with, or contrary to) my research/opinion or using your own trade setups and fundamental/macro outlook - via our P2P swap platform. You can use actual capital or I can give you test capital, basically, play money, to trade with me and my team and all I ask for is feedback on the system and the ability to quote you (which is not mandatory, but it would be nice). You can trade stocks, bonds, commodities, forex and forex pairs long or short, or swap the exposures directly for another asset, ex. S&P 500 for the LSE 100, Apple for Google, etc. Fees start at 5 bp, the best available from anywhere. Digital leverage is available, up to 10,000x worth (double digit profits/losses can be had from 11 basis points in movement, or less - so be careful), with no possibility of a Margin Call since the trades are pre-funded. If you think the opportunity is worthwhile, feel free to contact us or see info sheet below for more...
Macro Trading Has a New Power Tool: Peer to Peer, Counterparty Risk-Free Swaps for Value Transfer & Trading
Trade the value of over 45,000 tickers of instruments in every asset class from every major geography and exchange with up to 10,000x pricing leverage without concerns of counterparty/credit/default risk or margin calls. Very big claims… substantiated by a very big discovery in value transfer and security.
Veritaseum is the worldwide leader in the financial implementation of “smart contracts” – unbreakable, self-executing bilateral agreements between two or more parties. We use these smart contracts to create peer to peer swaps for the transfer of value through the “blockchain,” a worldwide, open ledger of pseudonymous transactions that can be seen and audited by anyone, any time in the cloud. The blockchain is considered unhackable and one of the most secure implementations of cryptography to date.
With the use of financial “wallets”, client side applications that use a simple interface to guide users in the quick (as in minutes – enter ticker(s), amount to risk, collateral, expiry and leverage required) creation of a smart contract (in this case a P2P swap), users trade OTC directly with other parties – totally bypassing and intermediating exchanges, with even less risk. Monetary value is committed up front, a leverage factor is digitally dialed in (anywhere from 2x to 10,000x) and the smart contract is created and sent to the blockchain to await a match. Once matched, the funds are locked into the transaction until expiry, at which point profits and losses are distributed along with principal and unused collateral (the capital chosen to be put at risk). A novel, risk averse, extremely powerful, and quite frankly - ingenious way to trade macro strategies.
Not only can one go long or short any ticker in any asset class from any region for any currency, one can go long one ticker relative to another. For instance, those with a bearish outlook on the S&P 500 normally short it for USD. You can now short (pay) the S&P 500 index directly while going long (receiving) Eurozone equities (or 10 year treasury yields, or Swiss francs or the CNYJPY pair or bitocin), in a single transaction – with or out without leverage.
Since the exchange is peer to peer, we never hold or control any of your assets, hence you are not exposed to our balance sheet, credit, default or counterparty risks (the blockchain is your effective counterparty). Veritaseum is a software concern, not a financial concern or intermediary! You can always track your assets and trade through the blockchain at any time. The capital is loaded in the wallet in the form of bitcoin, and for those who choose to minimize exposure to bitcoin market price volatility, leverage can be used to nearly eliminate the noise. You can also conduct trades using a demo mode and test coins, so as to use the system without risking actual capital.

Smart Contracts as Transaction Vehicles: The Safest Possible Way To Exchange Value

Veritaseum's UltraCoin smart contracts are: 1. highly flexible - you design your own derivatives yourself using your own parameters via our simple graphical user interface 2. self-executing 3. autonomous 4. unbreachable: we call them, the unbreakable promise! They are backed, fortified and stored by/on the blockchain itself 5. uber-transparent: simple click the "trace transaction" button to find the location and historical travel path of your assets anytime, from anywhere you have an internet connection

Trading Through a Balance Sheet-Based Financial Institution vs. Distributed, Decentralized, P2P Software Concern

What I do want to accomplish is the education through the fact that the Bitcoin protocol has given rise to the genesis of a new type of company, with a new business model that can offer a totally new type of product. As you were able to see from above, Veritaseum's UltraCoin offers a very uniquer product with many if not all of the attributes that potential competitors offer, with a slew of attributes that others can't touch. This is done at 1/5th of the price and at much less risk! When dealing with Veritaseum's UltraCoin, you can never get Gox'd because we never have (nor do we want) possession of your coins or fiat - every, at any time. Because we don't user our balance sheet (we are a software company, not a centralized exchange or brokedealer) you:
This is just the beginning of what is capable with our Internet 2.0 business models.
I implore you to download our:
There's also a lot of BTC industry research available for download as well as our blog which has some of the best fundamental and macro research available on the web. Hardcore traders, investors and speculators should check out my latest piece: It's All Out War, Pt 3: Is the Danish Krone Peg to Euro More Fragile Than Glass Beads? The Danish National Bank Infers So!
Any individuals or entities looking to provide liquidity to the system, individuals/companies who wish to partner, accredited investors looking for a piece of the action (you have to be willing to sign and NDA, we are quite open to working with anybody), or those who simply want to shoot the breeze should feel free to contact us.
An example of an UltraCoin smart contract summary
Here's some info about me, my team and what we're doing at Veritaseum:
Cordially, Reggie Middleton CEO, VeritaseumTM Inc.
submitted by Reggie-Middleton to investing [link] [comments]

Which Are the Best Markets to Trade? IFRS 9 Financial Instruments - 2017 update - YouTube Financial Instruments for IR ตอนที่ 1 Forex Trading with signals for beginners Financial Instruments Education Session Part A

FOREX.com is a trading name of GAIN Capital UK Limited. GAIN Capital UK Ltd is a company incorporated in England and Wales with UK Companies House number 1761813 and with its registered office at Devon House, 58 St Katharine’s Way, London, E1W 1JP. GAIN Capital UK Ltd is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority in the UK, with FCA Register Number 113942. GAIN Capital UK ... Daily Forex News - Fully Markets Update. Monday , November 9, 2020. ForexMarketz; About Us; Contact Us; Currency Converter; Open Live Account; Forex Marketz Daily Forex News – Fully Markets Update . Forex Reviews; Market News. Technical Analysis; Trading Strategies; Video Analysis; Weekly Forecast; Forex Academy; Economic Calendar; Open a Live Account with TOP FX Broker; Breaking News. WTI ... NCM Investment (Formerly known as Noor Capital Markets or NoorCM) is a regulated brokerage company providing traders transparent & secure trading platforms to trade Forex, CFDs, Energies, and Metals in the Middle East. Financial Instruments Update Date recorded: 17 Mar 2009 The objective of this session was to update Board members on recent developments in financial instruments accounting under US GAAP. At its Monday 16 March 2009 the FASB discussed and decided on two issues: Additional fair value measurement guidance ... Financial Instruments Update - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Financial Instruments: Update of IPSAS 28-30 • Classification of financial liabilities IAS 39 with minor changes Gains/losses from changes in own credit risk - OCI Overall: Conceptual approach, principles –based, and reflects asset management Overall: Key change is to addresses the “own credit” issue All forex signals are online and created in a standardized way for all users (non-personalized). We recommend that you carefully consider whether trading forex and other financial instruments is a suitable activity for you considering your personal circumstances. Past results are not an indicative of future results. Wiseinvest.ai does not ... Under IFRS 9 all financial instruments are initially measured at fair value plus or minus, in the case of a financial asset or financial liability not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs. This requirement is consistent with IAS 39. Financial assets: subsequent measurement Financial asset classification and measurement is an area where many changes have been introduced by ... Forex Place orders on Forex Why trade Forex. Foreign Exchange, FOREX or FX in short, is the largest liquid market in the world. Forex is made of a decentralised network of Banks and Financial Institutions that are interlinked for exchanging currencies and for executing speculative trades on currency pair prices. Top Five Financial Instruments Forex. Foreign exchange market being the largest market in the world also comes with some of the best financial instruments that one can trade on a daily basis. The market accounts for more than $4 trillion in average daily volume. Foreign exchange is the art of trading currencies by merely taking advantage of changes in currency pair prices. Some of the commonly ...

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Which Are the Best Markets to Trade?

Price action tutorials for trading any highly liquid financial instrument across Forex, Futures, and Stocks IFRS 9 Financial Instruments - 2017 update - Duration: 20:51. Silvia M. (of IFRSbox) 292,238 views. 20:51. Warren Buffett on how to do investor relations - Duration: 4:46. That said, there are various classes of financial instruments that you will find best, at least to start. For instance, the major companies such as Tesco’s, Apple, Facebook, Vodafone, and others ... https://www.cpdbox.com/ This is just the short executive summary of IFRS 9 and does NOT replace the full standard - you can see the full text on IFRS Foundat... The IPSASB has created a two-part webinar on financial instruments. It was prepared and presented by Lucy Qi, the technical staff member responsible for the IPSASB’s Financial Instruments Update ... Welcome traders and true believers, today we are going to focus on Forex trading using signals. Stick around and let's see if they are reliable enough! Don't forget to like, comment, share and ... Please download these handy Forex trading tools that will I am sure will improve your Forex trading results

https://binaryoptiontrade.viemisbacihowsu.cf